POLITICAL SYSTEM INDONESIA
A. Understanding the Political system
1 . Understanding System
The system is an overall roundness or complex and organized .
2 . Understanding Politics
Politics comes from the Greek " polis " meaning city state . Initially politics associated with a variety of activities in the State / Country life .
The term relates to politics in constitutional governance procedures , the fundamental basis of government , or in the case of state power . Political basically involves public purposes , not private purposes . Usually involves political activities of political parties , the army and civil society organizations .
It can be concluded that politics is the interaction between the government and society in order to process and policy making binding decisions about the common good people who live in a certain area .
3 . Understanding Political System
According to Drs . Sukarno's political system is a set of opinions, principles , which form an integral and relate to one another as well as the government to regulate the conduct and maintain power by regulating individual or group of individuals with one another or with the State and the State relationship with the State .
Political system is the mechanism by Rusadi Kartaprawira or the workings of a set of functions or roles in the political structures that relate to one another and show a process langggeng
4 . Understanding Political System in Indonesia
Indonesia's political system is defined as a collection or a whole range of activities in the State of Indonesia relating to the public interest , including goal-setting process , the efforts to realize the goals , decision-making , selection and preparation of priorities .
Politics is all state institutions that are in the state constitution ( including the functions of the legislative , executive , and judicial) . In the preparation of the decision -making discretion is necessary to force a balanced and good co-operation between political superstructure and infrastructure so as to facilitate the realization of the ideals and goals of the community / state . In this case in question is a political superstructure State Institutions . These institutions in Indonesia is set in the 1945 MPR , DPR , DPD , President and Vice President , Supreme Court , Constitutional Court , Judicial Commission . These agencies will make decisions relating to the public interest .
Agency in the community such as political parties , mass organizations , the media , interest groups ( Interest Group ) , pressure groups ( Presure Group ) , Equipment / Media Communication Politics , Political Figures ( Political Figure ) , and other political institutions is a political infrastructure , through these bodies can society aspirations . Demands and support as an input in the decision-making process . With the participation of masyarakt expected decision made by the government in accordance with the aspirations and will of the people .
B. Political Process in Indonesia
History of Indonesia's political system viewed from the political process can be seen from the following times :
- The pre-colonial period
- Colonial Period ( colonization )
- Future of Liberal Democracy
- The period of Guided Democracy
- The Pancasila Democracy
- Period of Reform
Each period is then systematically analyzed from the aspects of :
- Distribution of demands
- Maintenance of the value
- Vertical integration
- Horizontal integration
- Political Style
- Participation of the masses
- Military involvement
- The state apparatus
When the analysis described back then obtained as follows :
1 . The pre-colonial period ( the Kingdom )
- Distribution of demands - low and fulfilled
- Maintenance of value - adjusted with a ruler
- Capability - abundant natural resources
- Vertical integration - top down
- Horizontal integration - appears only fellow monarch
- Political style - the royal
- Leadership - kings , princes and royal family
- Participation of the masses - very low
- Military involvement - is very powerful because it deals with war
- The state apparatus - loyal to the monarchy and the king who reigns
- Stability - secure and stable future instabil future war
2 . Colonial period ( colonial )
- Distribution of demands - low and not met
- Maintenance of values - human rights violations often occur
- Capability - abundant but dredged for the benefit of occupiers
- Vertical integration - the top down is not in harmony
- Horizontal integration - in harmony with his fellow colonists or the indigenous elite
- Political style - colonial , political split bamboo ( split up )
- Leadership - of colonial and indigenous elites who manipulated
- Participation of the masses - so low in fact there is no
- Military involvement - very large
- The state apparatus - loyal to the invaders
- Stability - stable but fragile condition
3 . Period Liberal Democracy
- Distribution of demands - but the system is not suit with high
- Maintenance of value - high human rights award
- Capability - only partially used , most are still potential
- Vertical integration - a two -way , top down and bottom up
- Horizontal integration - disintegration , emerged solidarity makers and administrators
- Style political - ideological
- Leadership - 1928 youth force oath
- Participation of the masses - is very high , even appearing coup
- The involvement of the military - the military is controlled by civilians
- The state apparatus - Loyak to interest groups or parties
- Stability - instability
4 . Period Guided Democracy
- Distribution of demands - high but not distributed because of the nat Front
- Maintenance of value - Low Respect Human Rights
- Capability - abstract , distributive and symbolic , no advanced economy
- Vertical integration - top down
- Horizontal integration - instrumental solidarity makers,
- Political style - ideologues , Nasakom
- Leadership - a charismatic figure and paternalistic
- Participation of the masses - restricted
- The involvement of the military - the military go into administration
- The state apparatus - loyal to the country
- Stability - stable
5 . Period Pancasila Democracy
- Distribution of demands - initially balanced then not being met due to fusion
- Maintenance of value - but there is gross violation of human rights recognition
- Capability - open system
- Vertical integration - top down
- Horizontal integration - appears
- Political style - intellectual , pragmatic , concept development
- Leadership - technocrats and military
- Participation of the masses - free limited initially , and then much more constrained
- Military involvement - rampant with the concept of ABRI's dual function
- The state apparatus - loyal to the government ( Golkar )
- Stability stable
6 . Period of Reform
- Distribution of demands - high and unmet
- Maintenance of values - Respect for human rights high
- Capability - adapted to local autonomy
- Vertical integration - a two -way , top down and bottom up
- Horizontal integration - appears , emerging freedom ( euphoria )
- Political style - pragmatic
- Leadership - civil , purnawiranan , politicians
- Participation of the masses - high
- Military involvement - limited
- The state apparatus - must be loyal to the state government not
- Stability - instabil
C. History of Political System in Indonesia
History of Indonesian Political System can be seen from the political processes that occur within it . But on the parsing is not enough just to see Indonesia's history but needed to be more effective system analysis . In the political process in which there is usually a functional interaction is a process flow that rotates to maintain its existence . The political system is an open system , because the system is surrounded by an environment of challenge and pressure . In analyzing the system can approach it like from the point of view of the party system , but it also can not be seen from the traditional approach by projecting a history of just shooting a glance . The approach should be done with an integrative approach is a systems approach , actor - proposition - purpose and decision making
The political process should imply the existence of a system 's capabilities . Capabilities of the system is the system 's ability to face the reality and challenges . This view of success in the face of these challenges differ among political experts . Political expert classical antiquity as Aristotle and Plato and followed by liberal theoreticians of the 18th century and 19th saw political achievement is measured in terms of morale. While in the modern era of political experts see it from the level of achievement ( performance level ) is how much influence the environment in the community , society and the environment outside the international environment .
This influence will bring political change . As for the political actors can change from the political elite , or the political infrastructure of the group and of the international environment .
These changes and the amount of content in the form of input and output streams . Proes converting inputs into outputs carried out by the keeper ( gatekeeper ) .
There are 5 performance assessment capabilities into a political system :
1 . Capability Extractive , namely the ability of natural resources and human resources . The ability of natural resources are usually still potential to the maximum and then used by the government . As with the management of petroleum , mining when it comes domestic investors that would provide revenue for the government in the form of taxes . Tax is then turn on the country .
2 . Capability Distributive . Natural resources owned by the community and the state is processed in a manner to be distributed evenly , for example such as food distribution is required to be uniform throughout the community . Similarly, the state income taxes as it should be re- distributed from the central to local governments .
3 . Capability Regulatory ( settings ) . To hold the control behavior of individuals and groups are needed for regulating . Regulation individuals often led to conflict of opinions. Like when the government tightened regulations require it later , this resulted in unfettered community involvement .
4 . Capability symbolic , meaning the government's ability to be creative and selectively create policies that will be accepted by the people . The more acceptable government policy created the better capabilities of symbolic systems .
5 . Capability responsive , in the political process there is a relationship between the input and the output , the output of the extent to which government policy is influenced by the input or participation by the public as the size of the input will be responsive capability . domestic and international capabilities . A country can not live alone in the globalized world today, even now many countries that have the capability of extractive form of international trade . Minimal in this international capability rich or powerful country ( superpower ) provides grants ( grants ) and loans ( loans ) to developing countries .
D. Differences political systems in various countries
1 . State Communist Political Systems
Characterized by centralized government , abolishing the right of private milk , rescission rights, civil and political Picture ruler , the absence of an open election mechanism , the absence of opposition , and there are restrictions on the flow of information and freedom of speech
2 . Political Systems Across the Country Liberals
Characterized by freedom of thought for individuals or groups ; restriction of power ; especially of government and religion ; law enforcement ; free exchange of ideas ; transparent system of government in which there are guarantees the rights of minorities
3 . Democratic Political System in Indonesia
The political system that is based on values , principles , procedures , and democratic institutions . The principal joints of the democratic political system in Indonesia is :
1 . Idea of popular sovereignty
2 . State based on law
3 . Shape Republic
4 . The rule of constitution
5 . Administration is responsible
6 . Direct election system
7 . Presidential government system
Reference sources : http://www.4shared.com/get/JSinwGnb/makalah_pkn_sistem_politik_di_.html;jsessionid=9A68FA6727901024B647362DFDA2D466.dc322
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SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA
Indonesian state was one of the countries in Southeast Asia , and became one of the pioneer , pioneer , and founder of the establishment of ASEAN . The geographical position of Indonesia is located between two oceans are the Pacific Ocean and Atlantic Ocean , and flanked by two continents , namely Asia and the continent of Australia .
According to Article 1 , paragraph 1 , Indonesia is a unitary state in the form of the Republic . According to the Constitution of 1945, sovereignty belongs to the people , and executed by the Constitution . System of government that is based on state law ( rechsstaat ) . In other words , government administrators are not based on other powers ( machsstaat ) . On the basis of this law , then Indonesia is not a country that absolutism ( unlimited power ) . Since the birth of the reform by the end of 1997, the nation of Indonesia has been a change in the Indonesian system , ie from a centralized to decentralized or regional autonomy .
After the enactment of the Constitution No. . 25 of 1999 on Financial Balance between Central and Regional Government , and Law. 28 of 1999 on the Implementation of the State Government is free of corruption , an early milestone of the implementation of the system of regional autonomy in Indonesia .
Here are some tools that state officials in Indonesia are becoming critical success of Indonesia in building and creating a desired goal state based on the 1945 Constitution .
Indonesian state government system can be interpreted in two parts , namely in the narrow sense and in a broader sense . In a narrow sense is composed of the executive branch of government , namely :
1 . Levels center . Includes the president and vice president , ministers and agencies that are within its scope .
2 . Levels area include :
a. Province consisting of the governor and vice governor , assisted by a service - SINas
b . Cities and counties , led by the mayor and vice mayor or regent and vice regent , assisted by agencies , district , village headman or chief , as well as rw , rt or Kadus .
While in a broad sense includes all fittings dalah countries , namely the MPR , DPR , DPD , President and Vice President , CPC , MA , MK , KY , and specialized institutions ( the Commission , the Commission , and the Central Bank )
Government of Republic of Indonesia can not be separated from the Pancasila as the State and the Constitution as the Constitution . Between Pancasila and the Constitution of the relationship can be related , Pancasila Pancasila used are set out in the Preamble to the Constitution . In the elaboration of constitutional Constitution is the basic essence of Pancasila .
The system of government in the world today consists of the Presidential and Parliamentary . There are some differences between the two systems . In a presidential system the focus is on presidential power , while the country with the focus of parliamentary power is in parliament , not the President or the Prime Minister .
In Indonesia, the country fittings consist of :
1 . The Executive , namely institutions that manage state government agencies in both the central and regional levels . At the central level , headed by the president and vice president . Sedangkat by the provincial governor and vice governor , for the next tungkat city government headed by the mayor and vice mayor and district by district heads and Wabub . The principal tasks of the institute is to carry out administration .
2 . Legislature that includes DPR , Provincial DPRD , DPRD city / county and DPD . Parliament and Council are elected through political parties in the election , while the DPD selected through nonparpol and non- military in the elections . The key task of the Parliament is to make laws together with the government , while the DPD kedaeraan filed a bill to be discussed with the House .
3 . Constitutive . This institution is the embodiment of merging the power of the legislature . If the DPR and DPD combines self and convened according to the Act , it will form the MPR . MPR memfunyai many tasks and the most important is to change the Constitution and menentapkan
4 . Eksaminatif or CPC is authorized institution menaudit financial condition of the state . The results of this monitoring will be reported to the DRP to be studied .
5 . Judiciary . Judiciary consists of the Supreme Court, Constitutional Court , and KY . Each of these institutions have their respective functions in accordance with Law . MA serves hear the case on appeal and examine the legislation under the Act . While the Court has tested these laws function above Act and dissolve political parties . While KY useful to determine the nominees .
In the Indonesian government if the president died or was unable to then vice-president who succeeded him . But if both are absent or deceased then there are three ministers who had to replace them at the same time , the interior minister , foreign minister , and Minister of Defense and within the deadline set by law . Period shake a president or vice president is 5 years or 1 period . Neither the president nor the vice president may be re-elected for the same handshake only for one period . So the president and vice president can assume the same for the two periods .
1 . The People's Consultative Assembly ( MPR )
Based on the original manuscript of the 1945 Constitution stated that sovereignty is in tanganrakyat and performed entirely by the People's Consultative Assembly . In other words pemegag MPR is the organizer and popular sovereignty . MPR is considered to be the embodiment of the people who hold the sovereignty of the state ( Vertretungsorgan des Willems des Staatvolkes ) .
However, after the amendment of the 1945 Constitution , the content of Article 1, paragraph ( 2 ) becomes " Sovereignty belongs to the people and carried out in accordance with the Constitution " . So after the amendment of pure sovereignty in the hands of the people who further regulated under the provisions of the Act .
Whereas in Article 2 paragraph ( 1 ) that the People's Consultative Assembly made up of members of the House of Representatives ( DPR ) and the Regional Representatives Council ( DPD ) are elected through general elections and further regulated by law . Membership of the Assembly was established by Presidential Decree ( Article 3 of the Law on the Structure MPR ) . The period of membership of the MPR handshake is five years and will expire when the new membership of the Assembly take an oath or promise .
Majslis leadership structures in the People's Consultative Assembly consists of one chairman and three vice- chairman of the elements comprising the DPR and DPD were selected from members and by members of the Assembly in plenary session of the Assembly . According to Article 7 of Law Susduk the Assembly , if the Assembly leadership has not been formed , then the siding leaders led by interim leader MPR , the head of the House , the chairman and the deputy chairman of the Council while the MPR .
If the chairman is absent then the DPR and DPD can be replaced by deputy chairman and deputy chairman of the House DPD . Peremian as chairman of the Assembly while the Assembly is done through a Decision . People's Consultative Assembly under Article 2 UUD 1945 , convened at least once every five years . In other words, if it is possible or necessary, then for five years the council can do more than one trial .
Proceedings it can be done in certain circumstances . Types of proceedings in the Assembly is as follows :
1 ) Session of the General Assembly session that is conducted at the beginning of the tenure of the Assembly membership .
2 ) Annual Session of the Assembly session that is conducted every year .
3 ) Assembly Special Session Assembly is held outside the General Assembly and Annual Meeting . Or hearing conducted under special conditions .
In addition to knowing the above three types of trials , the Assembly also recognize 7 types of council meetings . Meetings conducted by the Council are:
1 ) Plenary Session of the Assembly
2 ) Joint Meeting with the Chairman of the Governing Council - Chairman of the Commission or Council Ad Hoc Committee
3 ) Meeting of the Governing Council
4 ) Working Committee Meeting of Council
5 ) Assembly Commission Meeting
6 ) Assembly Meeting of the Ad Hoc Committee
7 ) Meeting of the Assembly Faction
Aside from the above, the Assembly also has the power of different laws in issuing regulations . In issuing regulations assemblies have different strengths , namely the provision and decision .
1 ) People's Consultative Assembly Decree
MPR Decree is the verdict of the panel that has binding legal force in and out of the assembly . Thus the prevailing MPR decree must be obeyed by state institutions and all subjects of Indonesia as a whole .
2 ) The decision of the People 's Consultative Assembly
The decision is a decision of the Assembly which have binding legal force to the assembly . MPR only has binding legal force MPR institutions alone , so a decision is not binding on the Assembly fittings other countries , including citizens .
To carry out the task entrusted to her people , the MPR has several duties and powers .
1 ) Changing the constitution and establish
2 ) Installs the president and vice president elected by the Assembly in plenary session
3 ) Decide on the House proposal is based on the decision of the constitutional court to dismiss the president and vice president in his tenure as president and vice president were given the opportunity to submit an explanation in the plenary session of the Assembly
4 ) Installs the vice president becomes president if the president die, resign , dismissed , or unable to perform the obligations under his tenure
5 ) Choose the vice president of the two presidential nominee when experiencing vacant position of vice president in his tenure , no later than 60 days during
6 ) Selecting the president and vice president if both stopped simultaneously in jabatanya period , two packets of candidates nominated by the political party or coalition of political parties , which package the president and vice president candidates won the first and second most votes in the previous election , until the expiration of the office no later than within 30 days
7 ) Establish a code of conduct and discipline MPR
When compared to the 1945 Constitution before the amendment , it can be seen there are a number of differences . For more details see the following data .
Position, Duties , and Powers MPR Before and After the 1945 Amendments
2 . President
President of the Republic of Indonesia shall hold the power of government by the Constitution . In performing its duties , the president is assisted by a vice president . Prior to 2004 , Indonesia's president elected by the Assembly . While the post- 2004 Republican presidential Indoneisa directly elected by the people of Indonesia .
If there is a balanced sound , then proceed presidential elections in the second round . And that in the selection of this second filter is the selection of candidates to determine the presidential couple . In the event of equality or balance the sound , then a decision can be taken by the Assembly by consensus with majority voting .
Based on the results of the 1945 amendment , given the amount of power and authority to the president without having to obtain the consent of Parliament .
The power and authority of the President are as follows .
1 ) Run the power of government [ 4 ( 1 ) ]
2 ) Asking the bill to the House [ 5 ( 1 ) ]
3 ) Establish regulations for the running of a law [ 5 ( 2 ) ]
4 ) Holding the highest authority of the Army, Navy , and Air Force [ 10 ]
5 ) To appoint consuls [ 13 ( 2 ) ]
6 ) Provide titles, decorations , and other honors [ 15 ]
7 ) memeberikan clemency and rehabilitation by taking into consideration the Supreme Court [ 14 ( 1 ) ]
8 ) Establish an Advisory Council which is tasked with providing advice and consideration to the president
9 ) To appoint and dismiss ministers [ 17 ]
10 ) Establish a substitute for government regulation legislation ( Government Regulation ) .
Meanwhile , power and kewenagan president must be approved by Parliament is as follows .
1 ) To declare war , make peace , and treaties with other countries [ 11 ( 1 ) ]
2 ) To appoint ambassadors [ 13 ( 1 ) ]
3 ) Receive ambassadors from other countries [ 13 ( 3 ) ]
4 ) Provide amnesty and abolition [ 14 ( 2 ) ]
5 ) Not to terminate or freeze the House [ 7c ]
According to Law no. 23 of 2003 on the election of the president and vice president . That a candidate for president and vice president should have special conditions , namely :
1 ) devoted to God Almighty
2 ) citizens from birth and never another nationality of its own volition
3 ) Never betray the country
4 ) Able to spiritually and physically execute the duties and obligations as a president
5 ) Residing in the Homeland
6 ) It has been reported to relevant authorities wealth wealth meyelidiki officials
7 ) Not being dependents debt individually or as a legal entity and that it is responsible for the financial harm state
8 ) Not declared bankrupt by a court
9 ) Do not ever do anything tercelah
10 ) Listed as voters
11 ) Has a tax number , and melksanakan taxpayer during the last 5 years
12 ) Having a curriculum vitae
13 ) There was the president and vice president for two terms in the same office
14 ) Loyal to Pancasila , the 1945 Constitution , and Proclamation
15 ) There was never sentenced to prison for taking action based on a court decision maker who has a legal effect remains
16 ) Aged sekuarang least 35 years
17 ) as low educated high school or equivalent
18 ) Not former PKI banned organizations , mass organizations or directly involved in the G 30 S / PKI
19 ) Never was sentenced by a court decision that has been legally binding for committing a criminal act punishable by imprisonment or more limaahun
After the 1945 amendment , the president and vice president are no longer elected by the Assembly , but is directly elected by the people .
The principles of the president and vice president elections under Article 6A financed ( 1 ) to paragraph ( 5 ) . Which clearly is as follows .
1 ) The President and vice -president as a spouse chosen directly by the people
2 ) Pairs of president and vice president nominated by political parties
3 ) The President and vice president elected if:
a) gets more than 50 %
b ) 50 % of the vote consisting of at least 20 % in each province are spread over half of the province
4 ) if no candidate meets the points c , then :
a) The two candidates for president and vice president of couples who receive the most votes first and second re-elected by the people
b ) potential partner elected president and vice president is who gets the most votes
5 ) couples the president and vice president elected by the Assembly inaugurated
Apart from the above provisions , the president and vice president can be dismissed by the Assembly in his mass if the president and vice president shall:
1 ) violation of the law , in the form of
a) treason against the state
b ) corruption
c ) bribery
d ) other felonies
2 ) acts tercelah
3 ) proved to be no longer eligible as president and vice president .
Meanwhile, to dismiss the president and vice president in his mass , the Assembly should accept the proposal of the House with the mechanism of action as follows .
1 ) House of Representatives assume or accuse the president violated the law
2 ) The charge of DPR submitted to the Constitutional Court
3 ) The charges can be filed at the Court House of Representatives if it is supported by at least two- thirds of the House members present and present quota limit is two- thirds of the members of the House of Representatives
4 ) The Court shall examine , hear and determine allegations of the House of Representatives no later than 90 days
5 ) If the Court decides the president and vice president of guilt , then the House of Representatives proposes to hold a plenary session of the Assembly
6 ) plenary session of the Assembly shall convene not later than 30 days
7 ) The President shall submit an explanation given the opportunity
8 ) The decision to dismiss MPR prresiden and vice president were taken in a plenary session attended by at least three- quarters of members of the Assembly and approved two quarters of the members present
But if the president died , or quit because they could not perform his duties in a mass , it must be done as the following provisions .
1 ) Replaced by vice -president until his mass discharged
2 ) If there is a vacancy vice president , vice -president of the Assembly elect two candidates to be appointed as president
3 ) If the president and vice president simultaneously die, resign , or be dismissed , then the task kepresidenandijabat by the foreign minister , interior minister and defense minister together at the latest one month
4 ) After the Assembly to elect a president and vice- president of two potential mates proposed political party
5 ) Two pairs of candidates are from the candidate who won the most votes in the election of the first and second previous
By looking at a number of the articles in the 1945 's , it can be argued that the president's powers should be limited by a rule or a particular mechanism . Thus , the statement is what is meant by the State of Indonesia who aspire to build a clean government and authority as a democratic state .
3 . Local Government
Indonesia is an archipelago country or the archipelago , has a number of obstacles and problems , especially if it is associated with an area and the geographic distance that is not easily accessible . Therefore, the post-reform government passed a law on regional autonomy .